Over the past 35 years, China has experienced an unprecedented rapid economic growth. However, severe economic and social inequalities cannot be neglected. This paper aims to present a holistic review on China's inequality issues from the human development perspective and proposes policy recommendations. The main body discusses economic, social and environmental inequalities respectively, analyzes the causes of inequalities with an emphasis on institutional mechanism factors, and puts forward policy recommendations. The report was written by Yu Jiantuo and and Zhang Lanying, and produced with the support of the European Union.